No, AES/EBU is a stereo format per XLR connector. S/PDIF is also stereo format. The surround-encoded signals that you're referring to comprise of compressed audio signals such as ATRAC format. They reduce the bitrate ofthe audio streams so that they can fit more channels of audio through the S/PDIF format bandwidth.
It may be possible to use AES/EBU connectors to pass encoded surround sound signals but there always needs to be a surround / multi-channel encoder first to then send the encoded signal via the stereo format / connection.