In short, yes this will work in certain ways. Thunderbolt is bidirectional and the Quantum family is completely Intel Thunderbolt Certified. All of the protocols that are contained in the Thunderbolt chip can be used via the second port.
But keep note that not all Thunderbolt adapters are bidirectional and it does matter where they are placed in your signal chain.
The Startech adapter and the ones that look like the Startech adapter are not considered bidirectional adapters and they have certain limitations. *This limits these adapters to be forever connected to directly to the computer
For example, the limitations of a non-bidirectional adapter would not give the user the ability to have Quantum use the second Thunderbolt port to connect to a self-powered Thunderbolt 3 device such as your TB3 Hard drive
You would need a true bidirectional adapter, such as the Apple adapter, to access a Thunderbolt 3 product after a Thunderbolt 1 / 2 product.
**If the hard drive is a bus-powered Thunderbolt 3 device, it will not be able to daisy chain through Quantum due to the power limitations carried by the Thunderbolt protocol.