Usually, phantom power won't damage dynamic microphones. There's actually a Sweetwater article with a really good response (http://www.sweetwater.com/insync/phantom-power-dynamic-mics-again/):
For those seeking the quick answer, phantom power can be left active for virtually all dynamic microphones. The word “virtually” is used only because there probably is some obscure microphone somewhere that can’t deal with phantom for some reason. If you’re using dynamic mics made in the last 30 years you should be fine.
And to answer your second question: No, there's not a way to send phantom power to just one input on the AudioBox 44VSL.